The Bauhaus was one of the most influential modernist art schools of the 20th century. It was a style and philosophy that combined society with technology. The Arts and Crafts movement, had major impact on this style. This movement was designed to divide fine art and applied arts which was a standard amongst German art schools. The Bauhaus school was designed and strongly influenced by Walter Gropius who was appointed too the Academy of Fine Art in Weimar, Germany.
In the 1920’s, the Bauhaus school stressed that art and industrial design should unite which was its most significant achievement. The school is also renowned for its faculty, which included artists Wassily Kandinsky, Josef Albers, Laszlo Moholy-Nagy, Paul Klee and Johannes Itten, architects Walter Gropius and Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, and designer Marcel Breuer. Below is a photograph of the Bauhaus School in Dessau, Germany. Notice how the design of the building is highly-symetrical and is not a typical building that you would find during the time it was completed.
“The ultimate aim of all artistic activity is building! … Architects, sculptors, painters, we must all get back to craft! … The artist is a heightened manifestation of the craftsman. … Let us form … a new guild of craftsmen without the class divisions that set out to raise an arrogant barrier between craftsmen and artists! … Let us together create the new building of the future which will be all in one: architecture and sculpture and painting.” – Walter Gropius
Today I wanted to take sometime to think about how lucky we are as women today; to have the right to vote, and to live as rightful ‘persons’. One of the women that we can thank for this is Nellie McClung. Nellie was born on October 20th 1873, and died September 1st 1951. When we talk about early feminism in Canada, she is the first woman that comes to mind for me. Nellie McClung was a part of the social and moral reform movements prevalent in Western Canada in the early 1900s.
Later, in 1927, The British North America act was passed and the definition of “persons” did not mention women or men but discriminated against those that did not own property, which at this time would be women living in Canada. Canadian women were frustrated by the fact the Supreme Court of Canada, did not identify them as persons and in addition did not allow them to sit on the Senate.
A group of female activists, now known as the Famous Five (Nellie McClung, Emily Murphy, Henrietta Muir Edwards, Nellie McClung, Louise Crummy McKinney and Irene Parlby), launched the “Person’s Case”, which was a movement that argued against the thoughtless actions of the Supreme Court of Canada in their creation of the British North America act in 1867. A series of conferences took place led by the Famous Five took place and their ideas spread throughout Canada, it did not go without backlash and petitions made to the government to change legislation were ignored. However, On 15 February 1930, Cairine Wilson was sworn in as Canada’s first female senator just four months after the “Person’s Case” judgement was handed down by the Supreme Court of Canada.
Today let us remember the “Famous Five” and their contributions to Canadian social and political history! The photo below was taken in front of a sculpture group that is located on Parliament Hill. A group of women is meeting together after finally changing the meaning of the word “persons” in Canada. Their hard work, perseverance and courage did not fail. They are an inspiration and we owe them a big thank you!
Struck form the List. 1933. Paul Klee
Source: | Art Experts on WordPress.com
The “Musaeum”, 280 BCE
The Merriam –Webster Dictionary defines a museum as: “an institution devoted to the procurement, care, study and display of objects of lasting interest or value. The word Museum comes from Latin and Greek. The Latin word being “museum” which meant a place for learned occupation and the Greek word “mouseion” meaning place of the Muses.”
Human beings necessity to learn and explore the world around them, brought the innate desire to collect and interpret information. Going back as far as Greek and Roman times we have evidence of people gathering in large numbers to discuss, debate and contemplate philosophy and share knowledge. Scholars gathered in grand spaces meant to be more like institutes or libraries rather than to house or showcase artefacts. The earliest example of these ancient classic learning centres is the Alexandrian “Musaeum” or institute built around 280 BCE by Ptolemy I Soter, in Alexandria, Egypt. This institute was noted for its prowess in philosophy, science and literary study.
Cabinets of Curiosity, 1600 ACE
As time followed the Museum as an early hub for conversation and learning developed into a love for collecting artificial objects and natural objects. During the 1600’s rich families of collectors would accumulate both artefacts and natural objects and place them into cabinets of curiosity. Having access to all of these objects was seen as a demonstrati
on of learning and wealth of the collectors. The more they had and the more knowledge they had acquired, meant that they were at the higher ranks of society. Few of these cabinets survive but painted portraits of the collectors and their collections are circulated. These rooms of curiosity did not provide an immersive experience as museums do since they were private spaces for the use of the collector on his or her own. However, they shared the most important similarity that is the fact collections of items were organised by category, size and type just as the storage rooms are in many museums today.
The Public Museum, 1749 ACE
How did museums become public like they are today? We can look at the case of Strawberry Hill in England, the home of one of the most prominent antiquarians, Henry Walpole. This well-decorated home, turned into a museum, was unique because it was designed in the Gothic style on the exterior of the building to the inner walls that housed the collection. Each and every one of the walls in the building were covered in artefacts and paintings. Walpole accumulated objects that depicted the world he wanted to see. It is interesting to note that his art collection did not include the works of masters, rather they were produced by amateurs. Walpole claimed to not refuse visitors into his ‘museum’ but he gave distinct rules, in writing, on who was allowed to enter and who was not.
Royal Ontario Museum, 1933 ACE
In the early 19th century changes occurred politically and economically. Thus antiquarians like Walpole resorted to selling their assortments to recuperate the funds they had spent adding their collections. One of Walpole’s friends named Hans Sloane; a prominent and famous collector, suggested a solution to for this problem by creating an entertainment space for the elite, where admission would be charged to view the artefact displays. It was only for the elite because there was a fear of people destroying the artefacts. At the same time period the French were going through the same financial problems England was. Instead of making their “museum” space exclusive they created a revolutionary museum that would serve as a visual encyclopaedia for education rather than just a home for an assemblage of artefacts that served no purpose other than to entertain. This way of using the space is very similar to the museums of today, except now we have more technology to assist us in engaging visitors to the past.
Thank you for reading!
At Little Dogs Laughed, artist-photographer Meg Greene Malvasi features her rescue dogs — Jack Henry, Hubble, and Anna. Meg’s images are shot with an iPhone or iPad and edited and processed with apps like Snapseed, Hipstamatic, and more.
Happy 149th Birthday Canada!
As this is my first post, I wanted to take the time to celebrate when Canada was on its way to becoming a country. It’s hard to contemplate the fact that Canada became a country 149 years ago! As a Canadian, who is interested in my country’s history, I figured it would be a good start to provide a review on what “confederation” means and why it is significant to us today.
What is confederation?
According to the Merriam Webster dictionary, confederation is, “a group of people, countries, organizations, that are joined together in some activity or effort.”
What does this have to do with Canada?
In 1867, Canada was a British colony made up of a vast amount of territory. This included the provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Upper Canada, Lower Canada as well as, the territories of Rupert’s Land and the North-Western Territory. The leaders of many of these provinces agreed that joining together to become one sovereign country would be beneficial. By doing so, these provinces could move further away from the tight grip of Britain. This group of men, known as the Fathers of Confederation met to draw a constitution called the British North America act. This act was sent to Britain, because it was mandatory. This is the piece of legislation that would bring all of the provinces and territories that made up Canada at the time.
What about the other provinces?
You may ask, why are the other provinces we know to today not included in this list? Well, there was some disagreement between these provinces and the first provinces that joined together. So, the last few provinces entered later, with the last province, Nunavut, who joined the Canadian Confederacy in 1999.
Why is this important to us?
It is important because Confederation allows us as Canadian’s to travel freely within our homeland, from the mountains of British Columbia to the furthest point in Newfoundland and Labrador. Confederation, brings us together as a country from “Sea to sea”.